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Activated coconut coir for removal of water hardness

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dc.contributor.author Hettiarachchi, E.
dc.contributor.author Kottegoda, N.
dc.contributor.author Perera, A.D.L.C.
dc.date.accessioned 2018-11-23T06:38:59Z
dc.date.available 2018-11-23T06:38:59Z
dc.date.issued 2017-01
dc.identifier.citation Hettiarachchi, E., Kottegoda, N., Perera, A.D.L.C. (2017). "Activated coconut coir for removal of water hardness", Desalination and water treatment. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://dr.lib.sjp.ac.lk/handle/123456789/7601
dc.description.abstract Phosphoric acid activated coconut coir (ACC) has been used as an efficient and low cost filter material for water softening applications. The material has efficiently removed total hardness and calcium hardness from both artificial and natural hard water whereas the Mg hardness removal efficiency was relatively lower than the other two hardness values. The optimum conditions for maximum hardness removal were; ACC dose 80.00 g L–1, stirring time 30 min and settling time 2 h. Under the optimized conditions, the maximum removal efficiencies of total, Ca and Mg hardness, were approximately 46%, 66% and 30%, respectively from artificial hard water. More efficient softening was observed when the hard water was boiled to remove the temporary hardness prior to filtering through the ACC medium. It was also, observed that the hardness removal efficiency was higher when two layers of ACC together with a sand layer were used. The results indicate that ACC has potential in future water softening applications. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher 2017 Desalination Publications. en_US
dc.subject Activated coconut coir; Hardness; Water softening; Temporary hardness; Permanent hardness en_US
dc.title Activated coconut coir for removal of water hardness en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.5004/dwt.2017.0339 en_US

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